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Packard Bell

Packard Bell is a Dutch-based computer manufacturing company and subsidiary of Acer. The brand name originally belonged to an American radio set manufacturer, Packard Bell Corporation, founded by Herbert “Herb” A. Bell and Leon S. Packard in 1933. In 1986, Israeli investors bought the brand from Teledyne, in order to name their newly formed personal computer manufacturing company producing discount computers in the United States and Canada. In the late 1990s, Packard Bell became a subsidiary of NEC. In 2000, Packard Bell stopped its North American operations and became a leading brand in the European PC markets. In 2008 it was acquired by the Taiwanese consumer electronic firm Acer in the aftermath of its takeover of Gateway, Inc. Gateway products are now sold in the Americas and Asia, while Packard Bell products are sold in Africa, Europe and the Middle East.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Packard_Bell

Panasonic

Panasonic Corporation, formerly known as the Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., founded by Kōnosuke Matsushita in 1918 as a lightbulb socket manufacturer, is a major Japanese multinational electronics company, headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka. In addition to consumer electronics of which it was the world’s largest maker in the late 20th century, Panasonic offers a wide range of products and services, including rechargeable batteries, automotive and avionic systems, as well as home renovation and construction.

Panasonic has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. It has a secondary listing on the Nagoya Stock Exchange.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panasonic

Paramount Pictures

Paramount Pictures Corporation (commonly known as Paramount Pictures, or simply Paramount) is an American film production company and a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It is the fifth oldest film studio in the world,[1] the second oldest film studio in the United States (behind Universal Pictures), and the sole member of the “Big Five” film studios still located in the city limits of Los Angeles.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramount_Pictures

Pay-per-view (PPV) is a type of pay television or webcast service by which a viewer can purchase events to view via private telecast. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it. Events can be purchased through a multichannel television platform using their electronic program guide, an automated telephone system, or through a live customer service representative. There has been an increasing number of pay-per-views distributed via streaming video online, either alongside or in lieu of carriage through television providers. In 2012, the popular video sharing service YouTube began to allow partners to host live PPV events on the platform.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pay-per-view

Payment terminal

A payment terminal, also known as a Point of Sale (POS) terminal, credit card terminal, EFTPOS terminal (or by the older term as PDQ terminal which stands for “Process Data Quickly”[1]), is a device which interfaces with payment cards to make electronic funds transfers. The terminal typically consists of a secure keypad (called a PINpad) for entering PIN, a screen, a means of capturing information from payments cards and a network connection to access the payment network for authorization.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Payment_terminal

PayPal

PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating an online payments system in the majority of countries that support online money transfers, and serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like checks and money orders. The company operates as a payment processor for online vendors, auction sites, and many other commercial users. It charges a fee in exchange for benefits such as one-click transactions and password memory.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/PayPal

Peer-to-peer

Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer

Pentax

Pentax (ペンタックス, Pentakkusu) is a brand name used primarily by Japanese multinational imaging and electronics company, Ricoh for DSLR cameras, lenses, sport optics (including binoculars and rifle scopes), and CCTV optics. The Pentax brand is also used by Hoya Corporation for medical products & services,[1] TI Asahi for surveying instruments,[2] and Seiko Optical Products for certain optical lenses.[3]

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentax

Peripheral

A peripheral or peripheral device is an auxiliary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer.[1] The term peripheral device refers to all hardware components that are attached to a computer and are controlled by the computer system, but they are not the core components of the computer, such as the CPU or power supply unit. In other words, peripherals can also be defined as the devices which can be easily removed and plugged into a computer system.

Several categories of peripheral devices may be identified, based on their relationship with the computer:

An input device sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics tablet, image scanner, barcode reader, game controller, light pen, light gun, microphone, digital camera, webcam, dance pad, and read-only memory;
An output device provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor, projector, printer, headphones and computer speaker;
An input/output device performs both input and output functions, such as a computer data storage device (including a disk drive, USB flash drive, memory card and tape drive), network adapter and multi-function printer.
Many modern electronic devices, such as Internet-enabled digital watches, keyboards, and tablet computers, have interfaces for use as computer peripheral devices.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral

Personal cloud

A personal cloud is a collection of digital content and services which are accessible from any device. The personal cloud is not a tangible entity. It is a place which gives users the ability to store, synchronize, stream and share content on a relative core, moving from one platform, screen and location to another. Created on connected services and applications, it reflects and sets consumers’ expectations for how next-generation computing services will work.

The four primary types of personal cloud in use today are: Online cloud, NAS device cloud, server device cloud, and home-made clouds.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_cloud

Personal computer

personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputers and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer

Personal data

Personal data, also known as personal information or personally identifiable information (PII)[1][2][3] is any information relating to an identifiable person.

The abbreviation PII is widely accepted in the United States, but the phrase it abbreviates has four common variants based on personal / personally, and identifiable / identifying. Not all are equivalent, and for legal purposes the effective definitions vary depending on the jurisdiction and the purposes for which the term is being used. [a] Under European and other data protection regimes, which centre primarily around the General Data Protection Regulation, the term “personal data” is significantly broader, and determines the scope of the regulatory regime.[4]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_data

Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC,[1][2] is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widespread adoption of highly capable smartphones, in particular those based on iOS and Android.[3]

Nearly all modern PDAs have the ability to connect to the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display, letting it include a web browser. Most models also have audio capabilities, allowing usage as a portable media player, and also enabling most of them to be used as telephones. Most PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi or Wireless WANs. Sometimes, instead of buttons, PDAs employ touchscreen technology. The technology industry has recently recycled the term personal digital assistance. The term is more commonly used for software that identifies a user’s voice to reply to the queries.

The first PDA, the Organiser, was released in 1984 by Psion, followed by Psion’s Series 3, in 1991. The latter began to resemble the more familiar PDA style, including a full keyboard.[4][5] The term PDA was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Inc. CEO John Sculley at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple Newton.[6] In 1994, IBM introduced the first PDA with analog cellular phone functionality, the IBM Simon, which can also be considered the first smartphone. Then in 1996, Nokia introduced a PDA with digital cellphone functionality, the 9000 Communicator. Another early entrant in this market was Palm, with a line of PDA products which began in March 1996. Palm would eventually be the dominant vendor of PDAs until the rising popularity of Pocket PC devices in the early 2000s.[7] By mid-2000s most PDAs had morphed into smartphones as classic PDAs without cellular radios were increasingly becoming uncommon.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_digital_assistant

Phablet

The phablet (/ˈfæblət/, /-lɪt/) is a class of modern mobile devices combining or straddling the size format of smartphones and tablets. The word itself is a portmanteau of the words phone and tablet.

Phablets feature large displays that complement screen-intensive activity such as mobile web browsing and multimedia viewing. They may also include software optimized for an integral self-storing stylus to facilitate sketching, note-taking and annotation. Phablets were originally designed for the Asian market where consumers could not afford both a smartphone and tablet as in North America; phones for that market are known for having “budget-specs-big-battery” with large low resolution screens and midrange processors, although other phablets have flagship specifications. Since then, phablets in North America have also become successful for several reasons: Android 4.0 and subsequent releases of Android were suited to large as well as small screen sizes, while older consumers preferred larger screen sizes on smartphones due to deteriorating eyesight.

While Samsung’s Galaxy Note (2011) is largely credited with popularizing the phablet when launched in 2011,[6] examples of earlier devices with similar form factors date to 1993. The term “phablet” became increasingly widespread in the industry from 2012 to 2014 although its usage has declined since as average smartphone sizes eventually morphed into small tablet sizes.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phablet

Philips

Koninklijke Philips N.V. (literally Royal Philips, commonly shortened to Philips, stylized in its logo as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational conglomerate corporation that was founded in Eindhoven. Since 1997, it has been mostly headquartered in Amsterdam, though the Benelux headquarters is still in Eindhoven. Philips was formerly one of the largest electronics companies in the world, currently focused in the area of health technology, with other divisions being divested.

It was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik, with their first products being light bulbs. It currently employs around 80,000 people across 100 countries. The company gained its royal honorary title in 1998 and dropped the “Electronics” in its name in 2013, due to its refocusing from consumer electronics to healthcare technology.

Philips is organized into three main divisions: Personal Health (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Connected Care, and Diagnosis & Treatment (formerly Philips Medical Systems). The lighting division was spun off as a separate company, Signify N.V. The company started making electric shavers in 1939 under the Philishave brand, and post-war they developed the Compact Cassette format and co-developed the Compact Disc format with Sony, as well as numerous other technologies. As of 2012, Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world as measured by applicable revenues.

Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Acquisitions include that of Signetics and Magnavox. They also have had a sports club since 1913 called PSV Eindhoven.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philips

Photocopier

A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper or plastic film quickly and cheaply. Most modern photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process that uses electrostatic charges on a light-sensitive photoreceptor to first attract and then transfer toner particles (a powder) onto paper in the form of an image. The toner is then fused onto the paper using heat, pressure, or a combination of both. Copiers can also use other technologies, such as ink jet, but xerography is standard for office copying.

Commercial xerographic office photocopying was introduced by Xerox in 1959,[1][2] and it gradually replaced copies made by Verifax, Photostat, carbon paper, mimeograph machines, and other duplicating machines.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photocopier

Photodetectors, also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors. Solar cells convert some of the light energy absorbed into electrical energy.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photodetector

The photon is a type of elementary particle. It is the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light and radio waves, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles). The invariant mass of the photon is zero; it always moves at the speed of light in a vacuum.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon

PHP

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language especially suited to web development. It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994.[6] The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.

PHP code is usually processed on a web server by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module, a daemon or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. On a web server, the result of the interpreted and executed PHP code – which may be any type of data, such as generated HTML or binary image data – would form the whole or part of an HTTP response. Various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks exist which can be employed to orchestrate or facilitate the generation of that response. Additionally, PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications[9] and robotic drone control.[10] Arbitrary PHP code can also be interpreted and executed via command-line interface (CLI).

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP

Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), romanized: physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. ‘knowledge of nature’, from φύσις phýsis ‘nature’) is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics

ping (networking utility) – Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. It is available for virtually all operating systems that have networking capability, including most embedded network administration software.

Ping measures the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer that are echoed back to the source. The name comes from active sonar terminology that sends a pulse of sound and listens for the echo to detect objects under water.

Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the target host and waiting for an ICMP echo reply. The program reports errors, packet loss, and a statistical summary of the results, typically including the minimum, maximum, the mean round-trip times, and standard deviation of the mean.

The command-line options of the ping utility and its output vary between the numerous implementations. Options may include the size of the payload, count of tests, limits for the number of network hops (TTL) that probes traverse, interval between the requests and time to wait for a response. Many systems provide a companion utility ping6, for testing on Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networks, which implement ICMPv6.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ping_(networking_utility)

Pinterest

Pinterest is an American image sharing and social media service designed to enable saving and discovery of information (specifically “ideas”[4]) on the internet using images and, on a smaller scale, animated GIFs and videos,[5] in the form of pinboards.[6] The site was created by Ben Silbermann, Paul Sciarra, and Evan Sharp and had over 400 million monthly active users as of August 2020.[7] It is operated by Pinterest, Inc., based in San Francisco.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinterest

Pioneer Corporation

Pioneer Corporation (パイオニア株式会社, Paionia Kabushiki-gaisha) commonly referred to as Pioneer, is a Japanese multinational corporation based in Tokyo, Japan, that specializes in digital entertainment products. The company was founded by Nozomu Matsumoto in 1938 in Tokyo as a radio and speaker repair shop. Its current president is Susumu Kotani.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_Corporation

Play (telecommunications)

Play Communications SA, known as Play or P4, is a Polish cellular telecommunications provider. Play was founded in 2007 and has gradually increased its local market share, up to 27% as of 2017. In September 2020, Play became part of French Iliad. Before being sold, Iceland’s Novator Partners, led by Icelandic businessman Thor Bjorgolfsson, acquired a large stake in the company.[3] As of November 20, 2020, Iliad owns 96,66% of Play.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Play_(telecommunications)

Playlist

A playlist is a list of video or audio files that can be played back on a media player either sequentially or in a shuffled order.[1] In its most general form, an audio playlist is simply a list of songs, but sometimes a loop.[2] The term has several specialized meanings in the realms of television broadcasting, radio broadcasting and personal computers.

A playlist can also be a list of recorded titles on a digital video disk. On the Internet, a playlist can be a list of chapters in a movie serial; for example, Flash Gordon in the Planet Mongo is available on YouTube as a playlist of thirteen consecutive video chapters.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Playlist

Plug-in (computing)

In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, or addon) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. When a program supports plug-ins, it enables customization.

A theme or skin is a preset package containing additional or changed graphical appearance details, achieved by the use of a graphical user interface (GUI) that can be applied to specific software and websites to suit the purpose, topic, or tastes of different users to customize the look and feel of a piece of computer software or an operating system front-end GUI (and window managers).

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_(computing)

Podcast

podcast is an episodic series of digital audio files that a user can download to a personal device in order to listen. Platforms such as iTunes, Spotify, and Google Podcasts provide a convenient, integrated way to manage a personal consumption queue across many podcast sources and playback devices.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcast

Polaroid Corporation

Polaroid was an American company best known for its instant film and cameras. The company was founded in 1937 by Edwin H. Land, to exploit the use of its Polaroid polarizing polymer.[1]:3 Land ran the company until 1981. Its peak employment was 21,000 in 1978, and its peak revenue was $3 billion in 1991.

When the original Polaroid Corporation was declared bankrupt in 2001,[3][4] its brand and assets were sold off.[5] The “new” Polaroid formed as a result,[3][5] itself declaring bankruptcy in 2008, resulting in a further sale. In May 2017, the brand and intellectual property of Polaroid Corporation were acquired by the largest shareholder of the Impossible Project, which had originally started out in 2008 by producing new instant films for Polaroid cameras.[6] The Impossible Project was renamed Polaroid Originals in September 2017,[7][8][9] and in March 2020 was renamed to simply Polaroid.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polaroid_Corporation

Popular music

Popular music (stylized pop music) is music with wide appeal[1][2][3] that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training.[1] It stands in contrast to both art music[4][5][6] and traditional or “folk” music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences.[4][5][6]

The original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States.[1] Although popular music sometimes is known as “pop music”, the two terms are not interchangeable.[7] Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population,[8] whereas pop music usually refers to a specific musical genre within popular music.[9] Popular music songs and pieces typically have easily singable melodies. The song structure of popular music commonly involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.[10] From the 1960s through the mid 2000s, albums collecting songs were the dominant form for recording and consuming English-language popular music, in a period known as the album era.[11]

In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin.[12] Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture.[13] The examples of Africa, Indonesia, and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popular_music

portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files. The data is typically stored on a CD, DVD, BD, flash memory, microdrive, or hard drive. Most portable media players are equipped with a 3.5 mm headphone jack, which users can plug headphones into, or connect to a boombox or hifi system. In contrast, analogue portable audio players play music from non-digital media that use analogue signal storage, such as cassette tapes or vinyl records.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_media_player

Prime Video

Amazon Prime Video, or simply Prime Video, is an American subscription video on-demand over-the-top streaming and rental service of Amazon.com, Inc., offered as a standalone service or as part of Amazon’s Prime subscription. The service primarily distributes films and television series produced by Amazon Studios or licensed to Amazon, as Prime Originals (or Amazon Originals) or Exclusives, with the service also hosting content from other providers, content add-ons, live sporting events, and video rental and purchasing services.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Video

Printer

In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent representation of graphics or text, usually on paper. While most output is human-readable, bar code printers are an example of an expanded use for printers.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printer_(computing)

Programmer

A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computers, or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software.

A programmer’s most oft-used computer language (e.g., Assembly, COBOL, C, C++, C#, JavaScript, Lisp, Python) may be prefixed to the term programmer. Some who work with web programming languages also prefix their titles with web.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmer

Programming language

A programming language is a formal language comprising a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.

Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. There are programmable machines that use a set of specific instructions, rather than general programming languages. Since the early 1800s, programs have been used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos.[1] The programs for these machines (such as a player piano’s scrolls) did not produce different behavior in response to different inputs or conditions.

Thousands of different programming languages have been created, and more are being created every year. Many programming languages are written in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform) while other languages use the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it).

The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard) while other languages (such as Perl) have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_language

Proximity sensor

A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact.

A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor’s target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive proximity sensor or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target.[citation needed]

Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between the sensor and the sensed object.

Proximity sensors are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. This is common in large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleeve-type bearings.

A proximity sensor adjusted to a very short range is often used as a touch switch.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proximity_sensor

Public key certificate

In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.[1] The certificate includes information about the key, information about the identity of its owner (called the subject), and the digital signature of an entity that has verified the certificate’s contents (called the issuer). If the signature is valid, and the software examining the certificate trusts the issuer, then it can use that key to communicate securely with the certificate’s subject. In email encryption, code signing, and e-signature systems, a certificate’s subject is typically a person or organization. However, in Transport Layer Security (TLS) a certificate’s subject is typically a computer or other device, though TLS certificates may identify organizations or individuals in addition to their core role in identifying devices. TLS, sometimes called by its older name Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is notable for being a part of HTTPS, a protocol for securely browsing the web.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_key_certificate

Publishing

Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as booksnewspapers, and magazines. With the advent of digital information systems, the scope has expanded to include electronic publishing such as ebooksacademic journalsmicropublishingwebsitesblogsvideo game publishing, and the like.

Publishing may produce private, club, commons or public goods and may be conducted as a commercial, public, social or community activity. The commercial publishing industry ranges from large multinational conglomerates such as RELXPearson and Thomson Reuters to thousands of small independents. It has various divisions such as: trade/retail publishing of fiction and non-fiction, educational publishing (k-12) and academic and scientific publishing. Publishing is also undertaken by governments, civil society and private companies for administrative or compliance requirements, business, research, advocacy or public interest objectives. This can include annual reportsresearch reportsmarket research, policy briefings and technical reportsSelf-publishing has become very common.

Publisher” can refer to a publishing company or organization, an individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint, or to an individual who leads a periodical.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Publishing

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